Please help support the Monday Morning Memo. Send your annual $25 check to 1225 8th Street, Suite 350, Sacramento, CA 95814 or signup online for "The Arc California Membership"
Note: The Arc is not an acronym; always refer to us as The Arc, not The
ARC and never ARC. The Arc should be considered as a title or a phrase.
Tony Anderson, Executive Director, The Arc California
Monday January 19, 2015 - Martin Luther King, Jr Day of Service
progress is neither automatic nor inevitable... Every step toward the
goal of justice requires sacrifice, suffering, and struggle; the
tireless exertions and passionate concern of dedicated individuals."
will at the state Strategic Growth Council hearing on funding for
affordable housing under the Affordable Housing and Sustainable
Communities program. The draft guidelines scheduled for consideration
would hurt deeper affordability projects like those that benefit people
United Network (RUN) will be meeting from 9 am to 4:30 pm at the
California Endowment, 1111 Broadway, 7th Floor, Oakland, CA 95607, for
their statewide day of organizing, training, and receiving important
updates on housing policy priorities for 2015. "Participants from
throughout California at all levels are expected to attend. Don't miss
out on the opportunity to learn from policy professionals, get valuable
organizing training, and be a part of shaping the strategy for this
powerful and growing network. REGISTER NOW
The Bay Area Access Now Quarterly Regional Campaign training will feature Jessie Lorenz, Independent Living Resource Center of San Francisco at 1:00pm (PST), 825 Howard Street
San Francisco. Everyone is welcome to attend the meeting which will
"concentrate on developing new plans to continue making transportation
and housing more accessible for people with disabilities in the Bay
Area. Beginning with an update and discussion on our BART train car
advocacy, we will then turn to identify other transportation priorities
like maintenance and safety. There will also be an opportunity for folks
interested in accessible and affordable housing to organize public
education and skills development efforts."
Executive Committee of the Early Start Interagency Coordinating Council
(ICC) will be meeting from 10 am to 12 noon at the Department of Social
Services (DSS) 744 P Street (at the corner of 8th Street and
P Street) and will "will discuss strategic planning. The Department of
Developmental Services will give an update regarding the Annual
Performance Report (APR) and the State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP).
Following the Executive Committee meeting the committee of the whole
will meet from 1 pm to 4 pm for further discussion of the strategic plan
and the goals of the ICC.
be participating in the Children's Round table from 12 - 3 pm in
Sacramento. The roundtable will host discussions related to children's
policy with the California Department of Social Services Director
Will Lightborne and Greg Rose, Deputy Director of the Children and
Family Services Division, Scott Graves, Director of Research at the
California Budget Project, Christian Griffith, Chief Consultant to the
Assembly Budget Committee, and Keely Bosler, Chief Deputy Director for
Budgets, Department of Finance.
be attending the California Black Chamber of Commerce Public Policy
luncheon with others from the seniors and disability groups which will
feature Barbara Perkins, speaking on the "Magic of Mentoring."
Friday January 23, 2015
will be meeting in Sacramento from 9 am to 10:30 am at the California
Foundation for Independent Living Centers (CFILC). This week the CCLTSS
will discuss a possible dues structure, we'll meet with a
representative from the Department of Finance on LTSS budget issues, and
the communications workgroup will meet immediately following the
General Public ICC meeting will meet from 9 am - 12 noon to "continue
strategic planning, address an action item regarding proposed changes to
the ICC By-Laws, and hear reports from the State Department
representatives." For advocates unable to attend any of the meetings on
Thursday and Friday in person you can attend by teleconference or
THE ARC UNITED CEREBRAL PALSY CALIFORNIA COLLABORATION
Public Policy Reports
The Arc and UCP in California (Greg deGiere, Public Policy Director)
our highest priority this year is saving the developmental service
system from collapsing, we're also continuing to work on the spectrum is
issues facing people with intellectual and all development
disabilities. Sexual assault of people with I/DD is a big one for us.
People with I/DD are victimized at much higher rates than the general
population, and perpetrators often go free for a variety of reasons
including difficulty in proving non-consent. We're talking with
legislators this year about a bill attacking sexual assault and other
crimes in several ways:
it a crime for a developmental disability residential care provider to
engage in sexual activity with a resident or in-patient of a care of
treatment facility, just as it's already a crime for a doctor,
psychotherapist or alcohol/drug counselor to so with a patient or
client. While these perpetrators would only get short jail sentences,
they would be required to register as sex offenders, preventing them
from ever again being in a position to sexually exploit people.
it or not, there actually are cases where providers have videotaped
themselves sexually abusing residents who were nonverbal and therefore
prosecutors had a hard time proving non-consent. While we want to
protect people with I/DD from sexual exploitation by people who are
supposed to be caring for them, we also want to protect the right of
adults with I/DD to have sexual relations with people of their choice
when they are able to consent. We think we've found the right balance.
We'll see if others agree.
police to make arrests on the spot in these cases without the need to
get get arrest warrants and to get emergency protective orders from
judges by phone to protect people with I/DD from sexual exploitation and
prosecuting attorneys more flexibility in scheduling trials in these
cases, as they already have for some other major crimes. This will let
prosecutors specialize in these sometimes complex and difficult cases,
and also will give these specialists the ability to bond with victims
and witnesses with I/DD and appear with them at every step of the court
the case of any sex crime against a person with I/DD, allow a
prosecutor to video record the victim's testimony at preliminary hearing
use it later at trial if the victim can't testify later.
police, adult protective services, and child protective services to
notify licensing agencies when they have reasonable suspicion that
person with state licenses or credentials have committed major crimes
against people with disabilities, elders, or children. Too often,
licensing agencies never know about these crimes of never take action
against the perpetrators.
think each of these steps would save some people with I/DD from sexual
assault. Together, we think they would make a dig difference.
# # #
Public Policy Director
Greg deGierePublic Policy Director
The Arc and United Cerebral Palsy California Collaboration
planning is important for all families. Thinking about the future can
be challenging and emotional. However, experience shows that adults with
intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) make a better
transition from the family home when the family has planned for the
Arc has created the Center for Future Planning to support and encourage
adults with I/DD and their families to plan for the future. The
Center's website (futureplanning.thearc.org) is the first step in achieving that goal.
provides reliable information and assistance to families and
individuals with I/DD on areas such as person-centered planning,
decision-making, housing options, financial planning, employment and
daily activities, and making social connections. In addition, the
website provides information to family members, friends, and
professionals that support individuals with I/DD. The website also
features stories of people and families who have created future plans or who are in the planning process.
ahead can be difficult, but it's possible and necessary. You can learn
more about the resources the Center for Future Planning provides at futureplanning.thearc.org. Please contact Betsy Katz, The Arc California (916) 552-6619 or The Arc's national office at (202) 202-617-3268 for more help.
Tim Hornbecker, Director of Advocacy and Community Organizing
PROJECT STATUS REPORT
Project Updates by Tim Hornbecker...
Advocacy and Community Organizing Report
DARE TO BE A GREAT ADVOCATE
everyone can be famous but everybody can be great, because greatness is
determined by service." -Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
celebrate a holiday commemorating the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.
He became great by advocating (sit-ins, marches, standing up, community
organizing, non-violence and speaking out) for the civil rights of
people of color. He saw some incredible 'wrongs' and organized people to
'right' them! He inspired a president and a nation to pass the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-352).
enacting a law is definitely different from implementing the law. In
1965, marches were organized in Marion and then in Selma and Montgomery,
Alabama to demand the right to vote for black people. On Feb. 18th,
a state trooper shoots and kills demonstrator Jimmie Lee Jackson, an
African American hospital worker (the officer was not charged until 2007
and pleaded guilty to manslaughter in 2010!) On March 7th,
over 600 marchers led by Hosea Williams and John Lewis demanded an end
to discrimination at the voting booth. 17 people were injured by Police,
including future Congressman John Lewis, which is why it is called
"Bloody Sunday." On March, 9th Martin Luther King, Jr. leads
another march on Selma to protest the violence and bloodshed. A
Unitarian Universalist minister James Reeb, in Selma to join the
marchers, is attacked and beaten by a group of white men.
share this scenario, because I still look back at my diary reflections
in college that day, Mar. 9, 1965 "Today, a white minister in Selma,
Alabama, was beaten and beaten unconscious. He lies in a coma! '' Two
days later I wrote in my entry, "Well, the white minister who
participated in the Selma Freedom March died today. God help our evil
much progress has seemingly been made since then.....especially since
Dr. King, Jr. was assassinated so long ago in 1968. Did we learn? We now
have a president with African American heritage, Barack Obama, himself a
community organizer like Martin Luther King, Jr. Yet that evil
prejudice lingers. 'Black Lives Matter' protests tell us that
discrimination and racial profiling is still happening and alive &
we learn from the past, we'll almost definitely repeat it. So my
message this week is to educate our self-advocates, families, friends
and staff about the need for diversity, one of The Arc's Core Values.
"The Arc values and insists upon diversity in its leadership and
membership. The Arc actively pursues and welcomes diverse groups
(including but not limited to race, ethnicity, religion, age, geographic
location, sexual orientation, gender, and level of disability) -from
Strategic Framework for the Future of The Arc, 2010-19. What can you do?
Do something positive. Watch the recent movie, Selma.
Have discussions amongst your members and staff. I was so amazed after a
diversity training of my staff in Seattle, Washington: more than half
of the young direct support staff had no knowledge of the Selma, Alabama
marches until we showed actual film clips of dogs being released and
biting protesters! Very few staff was aware of the Japanese Internment
Camps in World War II. And most didn't realize that people with
intellectual and developmental disabilities were sent by Adolf Hitler to
the gas chambers with Jews, Gypsies, gays and other minorities! The
Human and Civil Rights of our people with disabilities go hand in hand
with those whom we share a history of discrimination.
Tim Hornbecker, Director of Advocacy and Community Organizing,
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has recently published
proposed rulemaking for Title 27, California Code of Regulations Proposition 65 Clear and Reasonable Warnings.
The California FASD Task Force submitted a variety of comments over the
past year related to the warning signs. Below are the current proposed
§ 25608.3 Alcoholic Beverage Warnings - Methods of Transmission
A warning for exposures to alcoholic beverages meets the requirements
of this Article if it contains the minimum elements specified in Section
25608.4 and is provided using at least one of the following methods:
8½ by 11 inch sign placed at eye level so that it is readable and
conspicuous to patrons as they enter the area or areas where, by permit
or license, alcoholic beverages are served.
notice or sign no smaller than 5 by 5 inches placed at each retail
point of sale or display so as to assure that it is readable and
conspicuous. The warning message must be in a legible print size no
smaller than 20-point type and be enclosed in a box.
alcoholic beverages provided for consumption on the premises served by
food or beverage persons, or sold through an over-the-counter service,
the warning message is provided on a menu or list identifying the
alcoholic beverages served on the premises. If there is no menu or list
identifying the alcoholic beverages served on the premises, then the
warning message is provided on the menu or list identifying the food or
other beverages sold on the premises.
alcoholic beverages sold or distributed to purchasers within California
through package delivery services, a warning provided by incorporating
or placing the warning message on or in the shipping container or
delivery package in a manner that ensures the warning message is
readable and conspicuous to the recipient prior to consumption of the
The warning must be provided in English and in any other language used
for labeling or advertising the product on the premise.
§ 25608.4 Alcoholic Beverage Warnings - Content
A warning for alcoholic beverages, including beer, malt beverages, wine
and distilled spirits, complies with this Article if it is provided
using one or more of the methods required in Section 25608.3 and
includes all the following elements:
(1)The word "WARNING" in all capital letters and bold print.
NOTE: Authoritycited:Section 25249.12, Health and Safety Code. Reference: Sections 25249.6 and 25249.11, Health and Safety Code.
last week Governor Brown recently appointed three new members (Suzan
Carmichael, Diana Auyeung-Kim, and Charles Plopper) and reappointed two
members (Ulrike and Aydin Nazmi) of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant (DART) Identification Committee. This committee identifies chemicals that cause reproductive toxicity as part of their requirements under Prop 65 (Cal. Health & Safety Code § 25249.8). The committee meets at least once each calendar year. You can view meeting notices and other committee information here: http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/public_meetings/index.html.
Teresa Anderson, MPH
The Arc California
March 6-7, 2015
32nd Annual Cal-TASH Conference Hilton Hotel/Orange County Airport Come celebrate TASH's 40th Anniversary & the 25th
Anniversary of the ADA Keynotes: April Regester, Ph.D - University of
Missouri, St. Louis Sue Swenson, Director of the Office of Special
March 8-10, 2015
Save the Date: The 8th
Annual Developmental Disabilities Public Policy Conference by The Arc
and United Cerebral Palsy in California at the Holiday Inn - Sacramento
Capitol Plaza, 300 J St, Sacramento, CA 95814 (NEW SITE), Phone:(916) 446-0100(916) 446-0100.
Every year we host a public policy conference featuring legislators,
lobbyist, advocates, policymakers, and other speakers who deal with
issues impacting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities
and their families. Attendees include family members, self-advocates,
direct support professionals, attorneys, and executive/ professional
staff from community agencies and regional centers. Topics Covered:
National Public Policy, State Budget Overview, Advocacy, Healthcare, New
and Proposed Legislation, IHSS, Mental Health, LTSS and Olmstead
Related Issues, Work, Education, Trusts, Conservatorship, Crime and
Abuse of People with Disabilities, and more. Visit our webpage to see
last years' program (all documents and PowerPoints are on this site) and
eventually the 2015 conference: click here.
April 13-15, 2015
Save the Date:
The 2015 Disability Policy Seminar will be at a new location, the
Renaissance Washington DC Downtown Hotel, 999 9th Street NW, Washington,
DC 20001. The annual Disability Policy Seminar brings together
advocates for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities
with public policy experts and the staff of a variety of hosting
organizations who serve people with I/DD to go in-depth on pressing
policy issues and other topics of importance to the I/DD movement during
two full-day sessions in Washington, D.C. The Seminar culminates with a
third day spent on Capitol Hill where attendees have the opportunity to
meet with their elected officials. Each year approximately 700 people
take advantage of this chance to learn, discuss, network and advocate
for change. Hosted by: The Arc, United Cerebral Palsy (UCP), Association
of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD), American Association on
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), National
Association of Councils on Developmental Disabilities (NACDD), and
Self-Advocates Becoming Empowered (SABE). Disability Policy Seminar
June 1-4, 2015
The AAIDD Annual Meeting
will be held in Louisville, KY, provides researchers, clinicians,
practitioners, educators, policymakers, local, state and federal
agencies, and advocates with cutting edge research, effective practices,
and valuable information on important policy initiatives.Conference Hotel: The Galt House of Louisville.
October 3 - 5, 2015
The Arc's 2015 National Convention, Indianapolis, Indiana
requested by the Joint Legislative Audit Committee, the California
State Auditor presents this audit report concerning administration of
the Parental Fee Program by the California Department of Developmental
Services (Developmental Services). The Parental Fee Program assesses a
fee to parents of children under the age of 18 who receive 24-hour out-of-home care.
report concludes that the process Developmental Services uses to assess
parental fees is riddled with unnecessary delays, lack of
documentation, incorrect calculations, and inconsistent staff
interpretations. For instance, because Developmental Services does not
hold regional centers accountable for providing required reports of
children newly placed in out-of-home care,
months or even years pass before Developmental Services becomes aware of
the need to assess fees on certain families, causing a significant loss
in unbilled parental fees. Applying the results of our analysis of a
selection of accounts to the roughly 250 assessments Developmental
Services performs each year, we estimate the annual amount of unbilled
fees ranges from $740,000 to $1.1 million.
Developmental Services could not provide documentation to support over
40 percent of the fee assessments we reviewed and incorrectly calculated
many others. In fact, we found instances in which Developmental
Services incorrectly assessed fees by hundreds of dollars per month due
to various staff errors. We also noted that staff required documentation
of certain expenses from some families but not from others. We observed
similar errors, lack of documentation, and inconsistent staff
interpretations with the process Developmental Services uses to review
parents' appeals of fees. Because Developmental Services' appeals
process considers additional expenses and deductions that are not taken
into account in the initial fee assessment process, 95 percent of all
appeals result in a fee reduction.
a result of staff error and inconsistent interpretations and processes,
parents with similar financial circumstances may be assessed different
levels of fees. The program failures described here, and the fact that
Developmental Services collects only about 60 percent of assessed fees,
exemplify the department's ineffectiveness in operating the Parental Fee
Program. The root cause of these program deficiencies appears to be a
lack of management oversight and policy development..."
federal judge on Wednesday struck down a new Labor Department
regulation intended to require employers to pay more overtime to home
caregivers for the elderly and disabled.
The administration is expected to appeal the ruling. The regulation
narrowed the definition of "care," limiting the amount of time a worker
could do their duties, such as cooking or cleaning for the care
recipient, before they became subject to federal wage and overtime
protections. The regulation would have required a strict accounting of a
U.S District Judge Richard Leon said Wednesday that the department
overstepped its authority with the regulation, noting that Congress had
already addressed the matter. He also said that the regulations were
incompatible with the nature of the work, which required flexible hours.
the department is attempting to issue a regulation that would write out
of the exemption the very 'care' the elderly and disabled need, unless
it were drastically limited in the quantity provided so as to be of
little practical use," the judge said. A Labor Department spokesman did
not respond to a request for comment at press time. The department told
the National Law Journal
that it "strongly" disagreed with the ruling and was considering its
options. House Education and the Workforce Committee Chairman John
Kline, R-Minn., and Rep. Tim Walberg, R-Mo., who chairs the subcommittee
on workforce protections, urged the administration not to appeal the
ruling. "Congress created a broad exemption to help seniors and
individuals with disabilities access affordable in-home care, and that
policy has stood for decades under both Republican and Democrat
administrations. Today's judicial decision is welcome news for millions
of families that rely on companionship services, and we urge the
administration to accept the court's ruling," they said in a statement.
The regulation is part of a wider effort
by the administration to force businesses into paying more overtime.
The Labor Department is currently finishing a new regulation for the
broader workforce under the Fair Labor Standards Act. The regulation
would raise the salary threshold before an employer could exempt a
worker from overtime, current set at $23,000 annually. The rule is due
to be released this spring. Early reports indicate the new threshold
will be $42,000.
(AP) -- The Supreme Court seemed troubled Tuesday by the Obama
administration's aggressive defense of its strategy for targeting job
discrimination in the workplace. Several justices said courts should
have some oversight to make sure the government is diligently trying to
settle cases before taking companies to court. The dispute pits the
administration against business groups that say the Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission is too quick to bring expensive lawsuits against
companies instead of trying to negotiate settlements.
law requires the EEOC to try informally settling cases first, but the
question is how much can a court peer into those negotiations to make
sure the EEOC is not unreasonable. The government insists that courts
should have no role in probing confidential settlement talks, while
business groups want to be able to raise any ineffective settlement
effort as a defense. The Obama administration's growing crackdown on
claims of job bias has netted over $100 million in legal judgments and
settlements from more than 50 companies since 2011. Justices on both
sides of the ideological spectrum indicated Tuesday that there should be
some minimal way for courts to make sure the government is not being
unreasonable, without undercutting the EEOC's negotiating strategy. But
they grew increasingly frustrated when government attorney Nicole
Saharsky wouldn't budge....
By NewsRx, with J.P. Hall, University of Kansas..., N.K. Kurth, S.L.C. Chapman and T.I. Shireman.
new study on Managed Care is now available. According to news
originating from Kansas City, Kansas, by VerticalNews correspondents,
research stated, "States are increasingly turning to managed care
arrangements to control costs in their Medicaid programs. Historically,
such arrangements have excluded people with disabilities who use
long-term services and supports (LTSS) due to their complex needs."
news journalists obtained a quote from the research from the University
of Kansas, "Now, however, some states are also moving this population
to managed care. Little is known about the experiences of people with
disabilities during and after this transition. To document experiences
of Medicaid enrollees with disabilities using long-term services and
supports during transition to Medicaid managed care in Kansas. During
the spring of 2013, 105 Kansans with disabilities using Medicaid
long-term services and supports (LTSS) were surveyed via telephone or
in-person as they transitioned to managed care. Qualitative data
analysis of survey responses was conducted to learn more about the
issues encountered by people with disabilities under Medicaid managed
care. Respondents encountered numerous disability-related difficulties,
particularly with transportation, durable medical equipment, care
coordination, communication, increased out of pocket costs, and access
to care. As more states move people with disabilities to Medicaid
managed care, it is critically important to address these identified
issues for a population that often experiences substantial health
disparities and a smaller margin of health."
to the news editors, the research concluded: "It is hoped that the
early experiences reported here can inform policy-makers in other states
as they contemplate and design similar programs."
The following grant opportunity postings were made on the Grants.gov Find Opportunities service:Updated: January 19, 2015
Arc of California posts job announcements in the Career Ladder section
every week because we would like to contribute to steering quality
candidates to professional positions that support people with
disabilities and we are trying to communicate to Direct Support
Professionals that there is a real "career ladder" in their chosen
the direction of the Vice President of Instruction will be responsible
to plan, organize and administer the Transition to Independent Living
(TIL) program and train, supervise and evaluate the performance of
assigned personnel. Establish both short and long term TIL program goals
and objectives. Serve as liaison for the program, including
coordinating with Regional Centers throughout the state to ensure
continued program funding. Maintain current knowledge of a variety of
applicable laws, rules, regulations, District policies and requirements,
including licensing related to students with Autism and intellectual
disabilities. Analyze, interpret and appropriately apply to assure
Cerebral Palsy Center for the Bay Area is seeking a proven leader with
excellent communication, fundraising, and management skills who can
guide this longstanding organization to the next phase of its growth and
impact... A Bachelor's degree is required. A Master's degree in public
administration, special education, rehabilitation, or other human
services related field is desirable. SALARY & BENEFITS: Salary
will be competitive and commensurate with education and experience.
Benefits include paid vacation and sick leave, health, dental and vision
insurance and paid holidays. TO APPLY: E-mail resume, cover letter and salary requirements by January 16, 2015 to: firstname.lastname@example.org (e-mail applications are required). Resumes without cover letters will not be considered.
California seeks a Legislative Advocate to lead our policy work around
land use and housing finance. The position works on both legislative and
administrative advocacy. priorities include developing new funding for
affordable development, strengthening housing element law, working at
the intersection of housing and transportation policy, and developing
Health America of California (MHAC) CEO in partnership with the MHAC
Board and the Executive Director of Policy and Advocacy, is responsible
for assuring MHAC's relevance to the community, accomplishment of MHAC's
mission and vision, and accountability to MHAC's diverse constituents.
The Board delegates responsibility for management and day-to-day
operations to the CEO, and s/he has the authority to carry out these
responsibilities, in accordance with the direction and policies
established by the Board. Salary commensurate with experience plus
health, dental, vision, retirement and paid parking. Submission
Deadline: January 5, 2015
Arc of the United States is seeking law student interns to work at our
Washington, DC office for Summer 2015. Applications for academic
internships for the Spring 2015 semester are also welcome. The Arc is
the nation's leading advocate for people with intellectual and
developmental disabilities (I/DD) and their families and the premier
provider of the supports and services these individuals need. The Arc
has a long history of protecting the civil rights of the I/DD and
broader disability community through advocacy, legislation, policy, and
litigation on matters such as civil rights, community integration,
housing, health care, long term supports and services, education, and
employment... All qualified law student applicants are encouraged to
apply, including minorities, women, veterans, and individuals with
disabilities. Please submit a cover letter, resume, writing sample, and a
list of three references to Shira Wakschlag, Staff Attorney and Special
Assistant to the CEO, email@example.com. Applications will be considered
on a rolling basis. Applicants are encouraged to seek funding from
their law schools for these positions.
provider for individuals with intellectual and developmental
disabilities is in search of a State Director to manage the overall
operations of our mid-size company. Fantastic opportunity for a
qualified individual that meets QIDP requirements, has a minimum of a
Bachelors degree in Human Services, and has management experience in the
field of developmental disabilities. This position requires on-call
duties. Must be able to pass a criminal background check, OIG, and have a
good driving record. Benefits include medical, dental, life, vision and
paid time off. Submit resume and salary history for consideration via
email to: HR3@diamondbackmgt.com. Pinnacle Community Services, EOE, 3355 West Cheyenne Ave., Suite #103, North Las Vegas, NV 89032.
The Arc California 1225 8th Street, Suite 350 Sacramento, CA 95814 916.552.6619
Advocates for people with intellectual and all other developmental disabilities and their families since 1950.